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Diabetes Mallitus

There are mainly 3 types of diabetes which are type1, type 2 and gastational diabetes in pregnancy.

Diabetes is the condition that blood glucose level in the blood is too high. Glucose is a form of sugar which is the main source for our body energy.

Insulin is the hormone that turns glucose into energy. People who have diabetes have

·an absolute insulin deficiency.

·impaired release of insulin by pancreatic beta cells

·inadequate or defective insulin receptors

·production of inactive insulin or insulin that is destroyed before it can carry out

Definition: Disorder of energy metabolism resulting from an imbalance between insulin needs and insulin availability.


Type1 is caused by beta cell in pancreas destructed which provokes to stop making insulin and end up being insulin deficiency

·Accustomed to be called juvenile diabetes as it is prevalent in young people bun can occur at any age

·Insulin absence leads to lipolysis which is breaks down fat, body starts releasing fatty acids and they are converted to ketoacids in the liver, brings on ketosis

All people with type 1 diabetes require exogenous insulin replacement in order to control blood glucose levels and prevent ketosis

Type2 is a condition of fasting hyperglycemia that occurs despite the availability of insulin

85% of type 2 diabetes is caused by obesity. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed quickly as symptoms are sudden whereas types 2 is usually no symptoms so other symptoms can be seen as a part of getting older.

Sign & Symptoms

·Polyuria(excessive urination)

·Polydipsia(excessive thirst)

·Polyphagia(excessive hunger) this is common in type 1 diabetes

·Blurred vision due to lens and retina being exposed to osmotic effects elevated blood glucose level

·Weakness and fatigue


The desired management for both type 1 and 2 diabetes is to normalize blood glucose level to prevent short and long term complications

Treatment plans involve nutrition, exercise and anti diabetic drugs

People with type 1 diabetes will need insulin therapy

·Dietary management for type 1 diabetes is

to check food intake, adjusting insulin therapy to fit with persons’s lifestyle

Exercise for those with type 1 diabetes has the risk of hypoglycemia

Dietary management for type 2 diabetes is

·to focus on achieving glucose, lipid, and blood pressure goals and weight loss if indicated

·Mild and moderate weight loss has been shown to improve the condition

Exercise for those with type 2 diabetes has quite a lot of benefits such as weight loss, decreases in body fat and improvement of insulin sensitivity

However, exercise has to be measured on the risk-benefit scale, which has risk of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, ketosis, cardiovascular ischemia and dysrhythmias

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